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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 58-66

Liquid biopsy: Decoding cancer in blood

Centre for Biorepository and Biobanking, Health Care Global Cancer Centre, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Abhishek Mohanty
HCG Centre for Biorepository and Biobanking, Health Care Global Cancer Centre, HCG Towers, #8, P. Kalinga Rao Road, Sampangi Ram Nagar, Bengaluru - 560 027, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jpo.jpo_17_22

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The molecular landscape of the tumors has been typically established using the surgical or biopsy tissue samples resulting in a sampling bias offering only a single snapshot of tumor heterogeneity from the tissue-based tumor profiles. A rapid understanding of such a bias over the years has helped in procuring a precise portrait of the tumors. This practice has positioned the employability of currently employed molecular analysis of the circulating markers in blood and several other body fluids, such as urine, saliva, and pleural effusions, using liquid biopsies. The genomic profiling of the circulating markers such as circulating circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), circulating tumor cells, or even RNA, proteins, and lipids as part of exosomes has not only guided the monitoring of response to treatment but also the drug resistance and minimal residual disease. The tumor educated platelets (TEPs) and their biological mechanisms driving the influencing of platelets by tumor cells are beginning to unearth TEPS as dynamically predominant components of liquid biopsy. Here, the biology, methodology, and clinical applications of liquid biopsy biomarkers are highlighted. The article puts forth how technological advances have catapulted cancer diagnosis via liquid biopsy in the last decade to obtain a tumor-derived genetic information for its exploitation toward personalized patient care so that liquid biopsy can come into routine clinical practice.

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